The electrospray ionization deposition method (ESID) is based on the atomic dispersion of ﬂuid that contains molecules or nano-articles under high electric ﬁeld onto a substrate. The spray nozzle is connected to a high-voltage power supply while the target substrate is grounded. This creates a potential difference and therefore, a strong electric ﬁeld which builds up at the end of the nozzle which forms a Taylor cone. The Taylor cone then deforms into a jet at the tip and disperses into a ﬁne mist. Within the mist there are charged clusters that deposit onto the substrate due to ionic attraction which form a nanoﬁlm. (For illustration of the above, see Figure 2.)
During the ﬂuid dispersion, there are several processes occurring such as Taylor cone formation, charge transfer, solution evaporation, Coulomb ﬁssion, impact on the surface, nucleation, diffusion and nanoﬁlm growth.
Effusion cell model Evap40 is a miniature vapor source of wide range solid state materials that are suitable for evaporation from crucible by thermal radiation from the surrounding tungsten heater.
The temperature range is from 50 °C to 1200 °C. It is designed for deposition of uniform thin films under ultra high vacuum conditions onto the substrate from sub-monolayer thickness to multilayered thin film.
The electron beam evaporator, model EB-Evap 40 is a compact vapour source of almost any solid state material that is needed for deposition of thin film on substrate.
The temperature range for material evaporation is from 100 °C to 2300 °C. Evaporation is directly from 2 mm diameter rod or indirectly from the small crucible.
The unit is very compact and suitable for any UHV system.